12.1 P1

Introduction
In this assignment I will be describing economic, environmental and socio-cultural impacts of tourism on destinations

Economic impacts 
Positive impacts
1-Increased employment
Tourism was worth £115.4 billion to the UK economy in 2009 and provided around 2.7 million jobs either directly or indirectly. Tourism is  a positive impact because it brings money into the host country and helps the government pay local businesses to keep the money flowing in by keeping up the appearance and keeping the area tidy and presentable for tourists to enjoy.
2-Economic impact
Money that has come straight from tourists has a wider impact on the economy. If a tourist visits a  destination and stays in a hotel, the hotel then spends money on local services and provisions to run the business and provide food facilities for guests.
In Dubai, the economy and the tourism industry are booming and is growing every year. In a LEDW, Kenya is reaping in the benefits of the money from tourism as it is becoming a place that tourists want to visit to be Eco friendly and participate in responsible tourism.
3-Increased domestic income
Tourism development brings economic benefits in terms often increased expenditure in an economy. This may come from domestic or inbound tourism. When more people go on holiday, it is because people are getting more disposable income increases and they can spend more
Malaysia is an example of increased income for local people as they used to rely on money  from selling their natural resources (tin, palm oil and rubber) but now they  can get more income from working in the tourism industry and provide more for their families. In Dubai, last year 291,500 were employed to work in the tourism industry and are constantly thinking of ways and businesses to get even more people working in the tourism industry.
Negative impacts
1-Leakage of money
Money leakage is when all of the money spent by tourists does not go to the host country and the local economy. 
An example of money leakage is a family booking a holiday to Dubai with a local travel agency staying in a big hotel chain (Hilton Hotels and Sofitel) rather than a local hotel or local workers. The family may already have booked excursions with the travel agents rather than booking them whilst in the country of vacation . Mainly LEDW’s tourism places suffer from money leakage, Jamaica suffers money leakage because of the hotels that are there are not based in the country and are goring owned. So when people book to stay in a hotel, the money does not stay in the country which is just like Dubai expect of the different economic worlds.
2 – Seasonal unemployment
Seasonal unemployment affects the local economy, it also has a social impact on those who find themselves out of work for part of the of the year must find some other form of employment. They may turn to a black-market economy to find work
In Spain, working only some of the year is normal as tourists normally only visit the country in the summer months. When October starts, tourist numbers start decreasing and so the unemployment  rate starts increasing. Also in Kenya, they are suffering from the same problem because for only a few months every year people will go for safaris and for the rest of the year they have no work.
3 – Increased living costs
When a tourists arrive in areas, particularly a developing area, they can have an impact on costs. Restaurateurs find that tourists are able to pay higher prices than locals so can put prices up. The supermarkets and local shops will be charging more as they may ship in produce to please the tourists and the local residents can no longer afford the things they need to have and will may have to move to a place where there is a low number of tourists.
 |n San Francisco, due to the tourists, locals now have to pay an extra 8% on everything. Increased living costs also occur in LEDW’s, in Costa Rica, the living costs have ski rocketed because of the tourists and have left no choice for some of the inhabitants but move.
Environmental impacts
positive impacts
1-Environmental education
Visitor centres at national parks often have  information and sources for tourists and school groups to learn from.Such education helps the tourists understand the reasons for conservation and encourages them to respect the environment.
 In the UK, the National Parks have walking tours as well as lessons on the environment. These lessons normally entail: how to recycle, ways to live without harming the environment and what could happen in the future if people abuse the environment now. In Kenya, there is also educational talks about the environment and the wildlife, people also get told and taught what to do when on a safari.
2-Conservation of natural and built environment
Tourism contributes enormously to this conservation in several ways. When a national park is a tourist attraction means it is recognised as warranting preservation and other conservation bodies, provide information and education for tourists. 
In the UK, English Heritage is a charity organisation which look after over 400 historic buildings, monuments and sites. They make sure the areas are well kept and preserved. Also in Sweden they are very protective about their natural environment attractions.
3-Regeneration of derelict areas
Both the built and natural environmental benefit from upgrading and regeneration when a tourist opportunity is uncovered by local and natural government. In the UK, coastal areas are constantly being changed to attract more tourists. 
In the USA, they are regenerating Detroit due to it destroying the natural environment and affects the oz layer.
The Negative impacts
1-pollution of water, air, noise and visual
In coastal resorts, jet skis and motor boats cause noise and air pollution from the petrol fumes produced. The noise cause distress to wildlife and the fumes can destroy marine life. When hotel resorts and destinations are growing, the building of hotels and the whole area can obscure the existing features and visual appearance of an area and the surrounding landscape
The UK suffers pollution especially in the main city areas where air, noise and visual. All of these types of pollution are mainly caused by the cars and the high volume of tourists. In India, they suffer from pollution because of the poor living conditions and the amount of cars on the roads.

2-Loss of habitats
Some countryside areas can be targets for tourism development ands it officially affects the landscape as it is ruined by the pollution (air,noise and personal damage). The loss of habitats and the continuing  lost of the habitats puts people off of travelling to the destination 
In Australia, habitats are being destroyed to make room to build new houses, is the major threat to around 120 most endangered. In the Mediterranean, tourism is affecting the wildlife and especially the marine as the boats are dropping their anchors and making the wildlife move away.
3- Congestion
Within  the UK, most day visitors and domestic holidaymakers travel by car, causing traffic congestions and pollution at destinations and attractions. 
Congestion is negative impact because it puts people off going to the place as it looks displeasing to the eye. On weekends in Dubai, the traffic is terrible as everyone is going out and the taxi prices for the locals as well as tourists go up
Socio-Cultural impacts
Positive impacts
1-Revival of festivals and ceremonies
Sometimes festivals and traditional events are kept going because of tourist interest. Traditional dances and ceremonies maybe be staged for the benefit of the tourists.
 In Gambia, festivals and ceremonies have become more popular for tourists to watch and enjoy. The festivals have been changed to become more modern but still contain traditional society motives. In Italy, there are musical heritage performances/ceremonies which take place in the opera houses and theatres. Over the years the Italians have constantly thinking of new ways to show off their colourful rituals about their religions and beliefs.
2-Improved standards of living
Regular wages, clean water, effective sewage systems and road and rail networks improve the locals quality of life, as well as providing facilities for tourists. The income from tourism can help people to improve their livelihoods and gain greater social status .
Due to the increasing tourism, the Kenyans are experiencing better living conditions as: they get jobs working in the tourism industry and get paid a decent wage and can provide for their families, the local government will use the tourism money to improve and provide better local school and more professional healthcare and will also improve the roads and other infrastructure. In Switzerland, the locals have a better way of living due: to the more job opportunities, higher wages, improved transport links. This makes peoples lives better when they can afford the basics and even have more money to spend on extras.
3- Cultural education
Travelling to new places can bring about a better understanding of different cultures. In the best case scenario, tourists learn about the food and traditions of their destinations and the hosts learn about the their visitors. Having tourists interested in the host culture can reinforce the cultural identity of the nation as they proudly show it to the visitors.
 When tourists visit any African country, they learn about: african instruments, art and creative cultural and their ways of life. By learning this, the tourists are learning whilst on holiday and will take what they have learnt and could give them a new way of thinking. Even though Dubai is a very man made city, there is still lots of culture to learn about, tourists can travel to old Dubai where you can learn about the culture and the art of what Dubai used to be like.
Negative impacts
1-Crime
When tourism numbers increase, the crime rate of the host destination increases. This is because the tourists carry cameras, smartphones, electrical devices, expensive clothes and jewellery. Tourists may also carry a high number of the local currency making them a high target for criminals to be pick pocketed.
In Brazil, mainly in Rio de Janeiro, the five star resorts for tourists to stay are more likely to have a high crime rate due to the resorts neighbouring the poor communities, the local residents are more likely to try to pick pocket the rich tourists for the money and anything they can sell on.
2-Staged authenticity
Some host countries put on  national dances and rituals, and some people believe that they are critics sometimes believe that traditional events and dances are degraded by being put on specifically for tourists. The host country may make up some activities that are not true to their culture and tradition, but it brings in the tourists 
An example of staged authenticity is in Bali,   as there is a certain dance which is part of a religious ritual performed on special occasions, however the dance has since been shorten and performed to tourists who are wanting to pay to see it.
3-Loss of cultural identity
Because it is now more accessible to as it becomes easier, faster and cheaper to travel the world, each destination has the same business concept, everywhere has become the  same. Some tourists want to have a holiday but doing the same things at home but with better weather. This negative development results in a loss of the host destination cultural identity
 . Also in Bali, when tourists used to go to the island they brought goods that fitted the host cultural and not souvenirs. However, nowadays the tourists are wanting to buy the souvenirs so the craftsmen are changing the products they make to meet the needs and losing the cultural identity of home made crafts of the island.

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