Unit 14 – P1, P2 & M1

P1 – Describe the types and providers of specialist tourism


Relating to sport Tourism
This kind of tourism is when people travel specifically foreither passive or active sport.  
Active sport is when people travel to participate in a particular sport such as football, tennis or a swimming competition. Passive sport is different, as it when people travel to watch sports, this could be travelling to London for the 2012 Olympics or Brazil for the football world cup in 2014.
BAC Sports is a tour operator who plan and sell holidays for people who want to go to a sporting event. The most popular sport holidays they sell are: motor racing, Football, Rugby, Golf, Tennis and cricket.  BAC Sports are one of the best sport tour operators in the UK as they plan and make tailor made sport and holiday packages for individuals and for business customers. BAC sports is an independent tour tour operator
Another sport tour operator is Burleigh travel, this tour operator plans sporting holidays for people to participate in. The tour operator is mainly used for school sporting events and their many focus is rugby festivals and football tournaments. Burleigh Travel is an independent tour operator.
Adventure Tourism
This kind of tourism is when people travel to explore popular and remote areas. Adventure tourists seek adrenaline rushes when holiday.
People who go on adventure holidays where there is an added risk of danger. Examples of adventure tourism is: going to an extreme climate destination (Cold or hot) or where you need a lot of vaccinations
Exodus is a tour operator who specialise in adventure tourism where tourists can learn about the local traditions, local cultures, local cuisines and their lifestyles. People can book a holiday to travel around in small groups to reduce the disturbance to the locals and reduce the negative impacts of tourism. Exodus is tour operator who are an independent organisation and are web based.

Imaginative traveller is another adventure tourism tour operator.  They offer adventure holidays and different ways of travelling around destinations:  being driven, walking or cycling. The destinations they arrange holidays are to long haul destinations and they do not have any adventure holidays in Europe.
Imaginative traveller is an independent tour operator and it is web based but they have a head office for people to contact them if they have a complaint or the staff need help
Health Tourism
This kind of tourism is when people travel to another destination for medical treatment. Health tourism could be people travelling to America to meet a certain consultant to get a certain kind of medication, go for an operation or take part in a medical trial.
Cosmetic vacations are a tour operator who plan holidays to Brazil which include a cosmetic procedure. Breast procedures and facial procedures are the most popular and breast lift and face lift are the most popular type of procedure people book for. People can also book for a dental procedure, which are: dental implants, treatment for the gums, dental veneers, root canal treatment, filling and restoration. The most popular type of dental treatment people has whilst in Brazil is to have their teeth bleached. Cosmetic Vacations are an web based tour operator who are based in America and plan holidays and a cosmetic procedure in Brazil.

The Medi Tour are a tour operator who plan medical holidays to India. They offer pre treatment, during the treatment and after the treatment. They also have consultations with with each patient via phone call, email or video call before and after the operation takes place. The tour operator arranges the flights and accommodation as well as visa if required. The procedures vary from a small and minor operation to a time consuming operation.
The Medi tour are an independent tour operator and are internet based.
Nature Tourism
This kind of tourism is when people visit different destinations/plan a holiday where they will see animals in their natural habitat and not in a zoo. This tourism is when people go on a safari in Kenya or a trek in the Amazon Rainforest
Naturetrek are a tour operator who having been selling wildlife tours for more than 25 years and one of the biggest tour operator of their speciality in the world. They plan holidays for people to visit all of the world: Asia, Africa, America, Australasia and Europe. The most popular tours which focus on seeing certain animals up close are: Bears, Dolphins, Tigers, Whales, Wolfs, Lynx’s and Jaguar. Naturetrek is an independent tour operator.
Natural World Safaris are a tour operator who tailor make wildlife holidays. They plan each holiday differently for each customer by choosing if is family only, in a group or a pre made tour. They plan holidays for four different areas: jungles, savannah plains, frozen areas or white sandy beaches. The holidays are based around the best time to see the animals (most likely to see them or even see new born). Nature World Safaris are a tour operator who are independent operator and are a small enterprise as they have two offices as well as an online booking form
Ecotourism
This kind of tourism is when people travel and visit a destination as environmentally friendly as they can to have an understanding of the environment and wildlife as well as conserving the area. Ecotourism is when you visit a country to help a community project or understand how tourism is affecting an area
Devon eco holidays are a tour operator who offer environmentally friendly holidays to Devon. Their cottages are powered by using the wind, sun and water.  As the tourists will be staying in the cottages they are only allowed to stay for a certain period, which are: long weekends which are three nights from Friday to Monday or short breaks which are from Monday to Friday. Devon Eco Holidays are an independent tour operator and are online based.
Baobab travel is a tour operator who specialise in community projects for tourists to participate in developing communities in Africa. The holiday is created for tourists to see the local people, culture and traditions of the native areas rather than the man made attractions. The destinations they go to are: South Africa, Tanzania, Malawi, Namibia, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia and Kenya. The experiences people can book for are: Wildlife Safaris, Honeymoons, Beach Holidays, Arts and Culture, Family Holidays, Adventure trips and the final experience is Walking and Trekking. Baobab Travel is an independent online only tour operator but you can also book via the phone but they do not have an office.
Relating to Special Interests tourism
This kind of tourism is when people want to go on holiday for a specific reason and the tour operator will cater for it.  Special interests could be going on a photography or cooking course abroad.
Headwater is a tour operator who create holidays for people who want to go on holidays for one specific reason. The most popular interests they offer are: Bird watching, Christmas markets and mixed activities. The destinations that the interests that take place are: America, Caribbean, Europe and the Mediterranean.  They plan interest designed itineraries combining it with high quality accommodation. They also provide the customers with maps, guides and notes relating to the interest topic for example bird watching. Headwater are an independent online only tour operator

Archers holidays are also a tour operator who offer different types of holidays to different destinations. The destinations are: Africa, Asia, Australis and New Zealand, Central America, Caribbean, Europe, Middle East, North America and South America
The special interests holiday they offer are: music related, festival related (Mardi Gras), seasonal city breaks (New York for black Friday), military interests and spiritual holidays.
Archers holidays are an independent tour operator who are online but also have a call centre.
Educational Tourism
This kind of tourism is when people travel to gain knowledge on a certain destination. This could be a school trip going on a week trip to Devon for geography or travelling to Iceland to study the geysers.
Travel bound is a tour operator who specialise in school trips, college and university tours and music tours.
The subjects for school, college and university trips are: Art, Business studies, Cross-Curricular, Food Technology, Music, Religious Education, Science, Sports and Physical education. The destination they go to are mainly in Europe but also to the USA, China and Vietnam. They also do music performance tours which students can book to go on. The music tours are the music types that are popular in the country where they are visiting, for example they can go to Disney Paris or Russia. Travel bound are a small enterprise with an office in Brighton.
CHA educational tours are a tour operator who plan and create tours which are affordable for teachers and students. The tours cover many different destinations: Italy and Greece, Germany and central Europe, the whole of Europe, America and Asia and the South Pacific.
CHA are the oldest educational tour operator in the USA so they are the best tour operator to plan educational trips for American students. CHA educational tours are independent small enterprise as they have an office
Cultural Tourism  
This kind of tourism is when people travel to experience a country or a certain apt of the country’s religions. The tourists learn about the lifestyles and how they have lived like it for many years. This could be going to Kenya to visit the tribes that still remain unaffected by the mass tourism or going to a place where Monks live.
ACE Cultural tours are a tour operator who specialise in tours which cover many cultural themes: art, archaeology, music and natural history. They offer over a thousand tours and because the tourists who book to go on them are wanting to earn about the destinations they get specially accesses and private visits to places where other tourists may not be allowed to go. ACE cultural tours are an integrated tour operator as they are owned by the ACE foundation who also own ACE Cultural cruises and they are a small enterprise as they have an office as well as an online booking form.
Kirker holidays are another tour operator who offer cultural holidays. The themes are: architecture, archaeology, art, music festivals and performances, garden tours, history tours and music cruises. The most popular destinations for the cultural related tourism are: Venice, Paris, Vienna, Rome, Bruges, St. Petersburg, Florence and Andalusian countryside.
Kirker holidays are integrated tour operator as they have British Airways and Eurostar as their partners and they are an enterprise as they have an office in Brighton and many different call centres around the world
Other types of specialist tourism
There are also other types of specialist tourism but not many tour operators are planning holidays and itineraries to meet the different types, which are: Disaster Tourism, Dark Tourism and Rural Tourism Disaster and dark tourism are kind of the same as both kinds of tourism is when something negative has happened there. Disaster tourism is when people travel to place where a disaster happened, it could be a natural disaster or even a terrorist attack. Dark tourism is when people visit places when something bad happened there many years ago like war grounds or visiting Auschwitz. Rural tourism is when people go visit and stay on a farm or in a rural area like the lake District for example.
Disaster tourism is a tour operator who specialize in the sending people on holidays in places where disasters have occurred. For example, they arrange to send people to help volunteer where a tsunami occurred. Tourists like going on these trips as the have fun whilst clearing up from the damage and learning about what happened and the negative impacts It has on the country. They are an independent online only tour operator.
Rural holidays are a tour operator who plan holidays to places which are not popular and are out of the city centre. The packages they do are: Trulli and Corti, Sicilia Bella tour, Wine and Nature. The tour operator also plans tailor made holidays when the tourists can choose what activities they would like to participate in whilst on their rural holiday: Rural cooking, diving, boat tours, oil and wine testing, walking and cycling tours, kitesurf and wakeboard, yoga and horse riding. Rural holidays are an independent but small enterprise tour operator who are based in Italy as they plan rural holidays to locations in Italy.

Currently there are not many tour operators who plan holidays around dark tourism as it is still considered offensive and disrespectful but there are tour companies who sell tours for people when they are in a certain are. For example, the jack the ripper tour in London, tourists can book onto the tour which lasts for just under two hours and you go to the sights of where he murdered the people. The tour exists as it is on the of the greatest mysteries of crime history and it appeals to dark tourist.

P2 –  explain the market factors that have led to developments in specialist tourism.

 Socio-Economic
o   Change in disposable income
o   Changing amount of leisure time
o   Change in the perception and status of specialist tourism
o   Desire for new challenges
Change in Disposable Income
More people are booking holidays as they are getting more money. They are getting more money as people are getting higher paid jobs and more people are saving their money so they can go on holidays. As more people are getting more money they can spend on personal things such as holidays.  Now more people are having more money they may not want a boring beach holiday and want a different kind of holiday. Some people may even want to book onto a course they having been saving up for ages (cooking course in Greece for example). The role of budget airlines is that the more people can still travel to different destinations even if they do not have a lot of money. Even though most people are in employment and are getting a regular income, there are some people who are: not in employment or are on a zero-hour contract meaning that if they want to book a holiday they have to do it on a budget so by having budget airlines it means the customers can save money and use the money on paying for an activity whilst away, for example a course of surfing lessons if they want a sport related holiday.
Changing amount of leisure time
People are having more leisure time as companies are giving them more holiday allowance, nowadays people are having  more time of work allowance meaning they can can have a longer holiday or many short ones during the year. Access to new locations is a development as are more people are having time off to go travelling.  Due to the change of law in 1999 which made work places give employees four weeks holiday every year meaning that people had more time to travel to new places rather than just going to Spain for the week. Also more people are having a gap year when finished studying  to travel around the world and find new locations out their comfort zone to explore and travel to
(islands in Thailand for example) Packaged to unpackaged is also a development that has increased leisure time, this is because people can plan their holidays to make the most of their time off meaning they can book many short breaks throughout the year.
   

Change in the perception and status of specialist tourism
People are having a different view of specialist tourism as  they are now wanting to have a different kind of holiday whether it be going to a location where a negative part of history occurred or helping out at a animal sanctuary . Mass tourism to specialist tourism is a positive development as people are learning that too may tourists in one place is bad for the place so they now want to help the place they visit. Another kind of specialist tourist is that people visit a destination to help and volunteer on a project such as helping build a school, medical center or other community facility. Response to social change and trends is also a development for the status of specialist tourism because people are wanting to show off that they are helping a community whilst on holiday rather than spending a week on a beach
Desire for new challenges
Tourists are wanting to push themselves and participate in new challenges. This could be going out of their comfort zone and their normal routine for specific reason: helping building a school in a developing country or camping out in rainforest. More people are wanting a different kind of holiday rather than a package holiday to a European destination so access to new locations is a development for people wanting a new challenge as people are boking more adventure based holidays or even a sport holiday. By people wanting new challenges, tour operators are always finding a way to meet customer needs and expectations
Self-Actualisation
o   Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
o   Holidays = happiness
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
This hierarchy was created to show the needs of people and what the five separate stages are: physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualisation.
Physiological needs –  breathing, food, water
Safety needs – security of: body, employment, resources, morality, the family, health and property
Esteem needs – self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others
Self actualisation – morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts.
Access to new locations
By having access to new locations it meets different points of the hierarchy chart, with the esteem needs being the highest point.
When people travel, they do not realize they gain the respect of others.
 Also when people travel they gain self confidence especially if they go on a holiday with a twist
(volunteering with lions or trekking in a rainforest)
Holidays = happiness
When people are going on holiday they notice whilst on holiday and then when they come back they be more happy and be more productive at home and at work. As people are finding out, by going on holiday it makes them happy and when it finishes it increases work productivity and general happiness and wellbeing. By having budget airlines, it means that people can have more holidays throughout the year without having to spend a lot of money.
Expectation of tailor made holidays
o   High level service
o   Tailor made

High level service
People expect a high level service of each part of their holidays as they dont always know what to expect from what they have booked, expect by reading other peoples reviews about the destination, accommodation or activities to do. As more people are responding to social change and trends they are expecting more things for the money they spend. For example, when booking a luxury safari in Kenya, people would expect a private tour guide and car as well as meals in the day included.
Tailor made
People book their own holidays to different destinations as it means that their expectations are personal and unknown. When people book a packaged holiday they know what they are booking as it is in the brochures. People are now having unpackaged holidays as it is cheaper and they can plan it all their selves on the go or at home when they can be comfy.
By having tailor made holidays it lets the tourists be in control of their holiday
Trends 
o   Active holidays
o   Culture holidays
Active holidays
People are having active holidays or having a part of their holiday doing a sport related or adventure related: going scuba diving in the Great Barrier Reef. As this is a new trend people are responding by wanting to participate and show off to their friends and family.
It is a development as tour operators are noticing that people would pay to go on a sport holiday or do a sport activity whilst on holiday
Culture holidays
Travelling for a religious reason: such as to go to Jerusalem. This is a new location development as people are booking holidays to go learn abut different countries culture or increase their knowledge of their own cultural and believes. It has developed as tour operators only offer the holidays in small groups so they can book many groups into go to one destination and make a lot of money whilst doing the tours

M1 – analyse how specialist tourism provision meets the demands of a changing market
       Growing demand for activity holidays
       More people are booking short breaks – more need for budget airlines
As more people are wanting to have a different kind of holiday which involves participating in an activity.  The holidays could be a long weekend of cycling in Spain or golfing in Portugal.
Another kind of activity holiday is a four-day cooking classes in Italy or Greece.
As many activity holidays are only doable for a few days (mainly beginners), it is having an increasing demand for tour operators to offer short breaks as people only want to go away for a few days at a time. The tour operators who already offer short breaks (British Airways for example) have already got a advantage over their competition.
Furthermore, the tour operators who already offer short activity breaks are now increasing their: amount of flights going to different destinations, more destinations and different kinds of activities for guests to participate in.
The tour operators who already offer short breaks could be a budget airline (EasyJet), people would have booked their activity holidays with a budget airline. When booking with a cheaper airline it means that they can spend money in booking an activity for a day of the holiday or the whole holiday.

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