Unit 14 – Specialist Tourism 
P2 & M1

Introduction 
I will be explaining the market factors that have led to developments in specialist tourism.

After explaining, I will then analysehow specialist tourism provision meets the demands of a changing market


Socio-Economic

Change in disposable income More people are booking holidays as they are getting more money. They are getting more money as people are getting higher paid jobs and more people are saving their money so they can go on holidays. As more people are getting more money they can spend on personal things such as holidays.  Now more people are having more money they may not want a boring beach holiday and want a different kind of holiday. Some people may even want to book onto a course they having been saving up for ages (cooking course in Greece for example).
The role of budget airlines is that more people can still travel to different destinations even if they do not have a lot of money. Even though most people are in employments and are getting a regular income, there are some people aho are: not in employment or are on a zero hour contract  meaning tat if they want to book a holiday they have to dit n a budget so by having budget airlines it means the customer can save money and use the money on paying for an activity whilst away, for example a course on surfing lessons if they want a sport related holiday.

Changing amount of leisure timePeople are having more leisure time as companies are giving them more holiday allowance, nowadays people are having  more time of work allowance meaning they can can have a longer holiday or many short ones during the year.   
Access to new locations is a development as more people are having time off to go travelling or just a week away. Due t the change of law in 1999 which mad work places give employees four weeks of holiday every year, it means people  have more time to travel to new places rather than just going to Spain for a week (example)
Also more people are having a gap year when finishing studying at university to travel around the world and find new locations out of their comfort zone to explore and travel to (Thailand is a very popular place for gap year travellers to visit) 
Packaged to unpackaged is also a development that has increased leisure time, this is because people can plan their holidays to make the most of their time off meaning they can book any short breaks through the year 

Change in the perception and status of specialist tourism
People are having a different view of specialist tourism as  they are now wanting to have a different kind of holiday whether it be going to a location where a negative part of history occurred or helping out at a animal sanctuary.

Mass tourism to specialist tourism is a positive development as people are learning that too many tourists in one place is bad for the location so they now want to help the place place they visit. 
Another kind of specialist tourism is that people visit a destination to help and volunteer on a project such as helping build a school, medical centre pr other community facility. Response to social change  and trends is also a development for the status of specialist tourism because people are wanting to show off that they are helping a community whilst on holiday rather than spending a week on a beach. 

Desire for new challenges
Tourists are wanting to push themselves and participate in new challenges. This could be going out of their comfort zone and their normal routine for specific reason: helping building a school in a developing country or camping out in rainforest.
More people are wanting a different kind of holiday rather than a package holiday to a European destination so access to new locations is a development for people wanting a new challenge as people are booking more adventure based holidays or even a sport holiday.
By people wanting new challenges, tour operators are always finding a way to meet customers needs and expectations 


Self-Actualisation 

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

This hierarchy was created to show the needs of people and what the five separate stages are: physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualisation.Physiological needs: breathing, food, waterSafety needs:security of: body, employment, resources, morality, the family, health and propertyEsteem needs: self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by othersSelf actualisation: morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of fact.

Access to new locations. By having access to new locations it meets different points of the hierarchy chart, with the esteem needs being the highest point. 
When people travel, they do not realise they gain the respect of others.
Also when people travel they gain self confidence especially if they go on holiday with a twist (volunteering with lions or trekking in a rainforest) 

Holidays = happiness

When people are going on holiday they notice whilst on holiday and then when they come back they be more happy and be more productive at home and at work.
As people are finding out, by going on holiday it makes them happy and when it finishes it increases work productivity and general happiness and wellbeing. By having budget airlines it means that people can have more holidays throughout the year without having to spend a lot of money

Expectations of tailor made holidays 

High level service
People expect a high level service of each part of their holidays as they dont always know what to expect from what they have booked, expect by reading other peoples reviews about the destination, accommodation or activities to do.As more people are responding to social change and trends they are expecting more things for the money they spend. For example when booking a luxury safari in Kenya. people would expect a private tour guide and car as well as meals in the day included.

Tailor made
People book their own holidays to different destinations as it means that their expectations are personal and unknown. When people book a packaged holiday they know what they are booking as it is in the brochures.
People are now having unpackaged holidays as it is cheaper and they can plan it all theirselves on the go or at home when they can be comfy. By having tailor made holidays it lets the tourists be in control of their holiday.

Trends

Active holidays
People are having active holidays or having a part of their holiday doing a sport related or adventure related: going scuba diving in the Great Barrier Reef.
As this is a new trend people are responding by wanting to participate and show off to their friends and family. 
it is a development as tour operators are noticing that people would pay to go on a sport holiday or do a sport activity whilst on holiday. 

Culture holidays
Travelling for a religious reason: such as to go to Jerusalem.
This is a new location development as people are booking holidays to go learn about different countries culture or increase their knowledge of their own culture and believes . 
It has developed as tour operators only offer the holidays in small groups they can book many groups into going to one destination and make a lot of money whilst doing the tours 

How Specialist tourism is responding & meeting these changing market factors 

Growing demand for activity holidays / More people are booking short breaks – more need for budget airlines
as more people are wanting to have a different kinds of holidays which involve participating in an activity. The holidays could be a long weekend of cycling in Spain or golfing in Portugal. Another kind activity holiday is a four day cooking courses in Italy or Greece. 
As many activity holidays are only doable for a few days (mainly beginners), it is having an increasing demand for tour operators to offer short breaks as people only want to go away for a few days at a time. The tour operators who already offer short breaks (British Airways for example) have already got an advantage over their competition.
Furthermore, the tour operators who already offer short activity breaks are now increase their: amount of flights going to different destinations, more destinations and different kinds of activities for guests to participate in.

The tour operators who already offer short breaks could be a budget airline (Easy Jet), people would book their activity holidays with a budget airline. When booking with a cheaper airline it means that they can spend money in booking an activity for a day of the holiday or the whole holiday


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